Ethics in AI

Ethics in AI

DeepMind researchers propose rebuilding the AI industry on a base of anticolonialism – “The researchers detailed how to build AI systems while critically examining colonialism and colonial forms of AI already in use in a preprint paper released Thursday. The paper was coauthored by DeepMind research scientists William Isaac and Shakir Mohammed and Marie-Therese Png, an Oxford doctoral student and DeepMind Ethics and Society intern who previously provided tech advice to the United Nations Secretary General’s High-level Panel on Digital Cooperation.”

The researchers posit that power is at the heart of ethics debates and that conversations about power are incomplete if they do not include historical context and recognize the structural legacy of colonialism that continues to inform power dynamics today. They further argue that inequities like racial capitalism, class inequality, and heteronormative patriarchy have roots in colonialism and that we need to recognize these power dynamics when designing AI systems to avoid perpetuating such harms.

“Any commitment to building the responsible and beneficial AI of the future ties us to the hierarchies, philosophy, and technology inherited from the past, and a renewed responsibility to the technology of the present,” the paper reads. “This is needed in order to better align our research and technology development with established and emerging ethical principles and regulation, and to empower vulnerable peoples who, so often, bear the brunt of negative impacts of innovation and scientific progress.”

The paper incorporates a range of suggestions, such as analyzing data colonialism and decolonization of data relationships and employing the critical technical approach to AI development Philip Agre proposed in 1997.

The notion of anticolonial AI builds on a growing body of AI research that stresses the importance of including feedback from people most impacted by AI systems. An article released in Nature earlier this week argues that the AI community must ask how systems shift power and asserts that “an indifferent field serves the powerful.” VentureBeat explored how power shapes AI ethics in a special issue last fall. Power dynamics were also a main topic of discussion at the ACM FAccT conference held in early 2020 as more businesses and national governments consider how to put AI ethics principles into practice.

some of DeepMind’s machine learning fairness research…

also btw…

Softlaw: “law that is software coded before it is passed.” (A very direct and literal take on @lessig’s “code is law”)[1,2]

posted by kliuless (38 comments total)

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Photos of Unusual Masks Seen in the Coronavirus Pandemic

Photos of Unusual Masks Seen in the Coronavirus Pandemic

Sherry walks up to me on an abandoned street in the Meatpacking District, and in spite of it being a warm, springlike Saturday morning, there isn’t a soul around. She’s wearing a silver sequin dress, massive silver sequin boots, and a silver-sequined, homemade double-cloth mask over her face, stitched together from an old boyfriend’s T-shirt and a bygone dress.

“I just finished this one,” she says, laughing as she struts up over the cobblestones, the sunlight glittering, blindingly, off of the bottom half of her face. “I feel like Hannibal Lector walking into Studio 54.”

For much of this pandemic, I’ve been stringing for Getty Images, covering the various beats of New York City life, making pictures of the doldrums of an energetic place: gone, the crowds of Times Square, absent, the traffic, shuttered, the museums, available, the parking. Without the restaurants, the art, the culture, and the people, New York has been reduced to a sort of postmodern Rick’s of Casablanca, where everyone waits, and waits, and waits, but where they also pay too much rent.

Going from location to location — this is code for hospital to hospital, the ghoulish requirement that now occupies most of New York’s news shooters — I began to notice that, well, there were still a few diamonds out there in the rough: people using the occasion as an excuse to wear unusual masks, creative outfits, and nevertheless demand attention from a quiet world that had none to give them.

Rob Gioia, New Hyde Park, public school teacher.
Annmarie Pristera, Sunset Park, exterminator.
Jaclyn Atkinson, Bedford-Stuyvesant, production designer.

Everybody’s a little bit wary on the streets of New York, of late. I’ve seen more fights in the last forty days than in the last ten years, been threatened more times in the last forty days than in my life entire, but I found that the weirdos — already and always the best New York has to offer — do not disappoint.

I’d stop them, explain that I was looking for a little joy, and make arrangements to photograph them when I wasn’t quite so busy waiting for beleaguered hospital workers to shuffle sick people around. Almost everybody I stopped said yes.

Alix Piorun, Midtown, medical technologist.
Ian Gilliam, Bushwick, sound designer.
Dekker Davis, Red Hook, baby.

We’d meet in a vaguely clandestine manner, always near their homes, always somewhat comically far apart, me shouting directions, them shouting back answers. Simple adjustments — “hey, lemme fix your mask a second” — became impossible, but we all made do.

They were happy to be seen and I, sick and tired of the sick and tired, was happy to see anything else. It grew on a network of recommendations, as New York is the world’s biggest small town: yes, there were a few people I already knew, like the subway motorman I’d heard was shuttling empty trains around the Brooklyn yards dressed as a medieval plague doctor for fun, but far more still that came as suggestions. Everybody seemed to have somebody they knew who was also using the occasion as an excuse to pep up.

Robert Preziose, Babylon, train motorman.
Brian Scott McFadden, Upper West Side, stand-up comic.
Cynthia Duarte, Bushwick, costume designer.
Justin Fornal, Yonkers, explorer and television host.

Some dressed for flair, some for safety, and some as a signal. I met up with Angelina, a museum curator, on the steps of what have now become the wasteland front steps of the Metropolitan Museum of Art. She was wearing a perfectly-too-tight N95 mask with a Mexican wrestling mask over it, as has become her occasional custom on the rare moments she steps away from her Upper East Side apartment.

Angelina Lippert, Upper East Side, museum curator.

“I wear a mask to tell everyone I can go out,” she told me, as a gawking woman with a stroller snailed past us, “and I wear a lucha libre mask to tell everyone they can go away.”

About the author: B.A. Van Sise is an internationally-known photographer and the author of the interdisciplinary photo book “Children of Grass,” proclaimed “the year’s most startlingly original, remarkable book” by Joyce Carol Oates in the Times’ Books of the Year 2019. The opinions in this article are solely those of the author. Van Sise’s visual work has previously appeared in the New York Times, Village Voice, Washington Post, and BuzzFeed, as well as major museum exhibitions throughout the United States, including Ansel Adams’ Center for Creative Photography, the Peabody Essex Museum, and the Museum of Jewish Heritage; a number of his portraits of notable American poets are in the permanent collection of the Smithsonian’s National Portrait Gallery. His written work has appeared in Poets & Writers, the Southampton Review, Eclectica, and the North American Review. You can find more of his work on his website.

Unmasked: Covid-19 and the Cultural Dimensions of the Debate on Mandatory Face Masks

Unmasked: Covid-19 and the Cultural Dimensions of the Debate on Mandatory Face Masks

Can masks help to stop the spread of the coro­na­virus? Other than in China, Japan, or Hong Kong, this ques­tion is curr­ently being debated in a most contro­ver­sial manner in Germany and other Western coun­tries. Admit­tedly, a group of young jour­na­lists and other cele­bri­ties initiated the #maskeauf campaign, calling on the public to wear masks outside the home. The German city of Jena obliges its citi­zens to wear masks in public, and Austria decided to imple­ment similar measures for the time after the lifting of the lock­down. Yet these measures remain contro­ver­sial – far more contro­ver­sial than other regu­la­tions related to social distan­cing.

Advo­cates of masks argue that droplet infec­tions could be prevented or at any rate decreased if ever­yone wore masks in public. Because of their current scar­city in Western coun­tries, these campaigns do not refer to medical masks. Instead, readers are exhorted to sew their own masks from washable cotton fabric.

Oppon­ents, by contrast, make a number of claims. Not only do they narrow down the debate to medical masks, sugges­ting that an obli­ga­tion of wearing them would be tanta­mount to redu­cing this precious good even further, thus under­mi­ning soli­da­rity. Others rejec­ting masks for medical reasons claim that they would only help protect indi­vi­duals other than those who wear them (assuming that only the infected should use masks) – an argu­ment that would be imme­dia­tely inva­li­dated if ever­yone resorted to masks. Some assert that masks would encou­rage tenden­cies of hoar­ding due to the anony­mity conveyed by them. At times, however, oppon­ents also claim quite unabas­hedly that other than in Asia, the prescrip­tive wearing of masks could simply not be intro­duced in Europe for cultural reasons.

The Mask as the Other

This essen­tia­list argu­ment – a mask as unsui­table for European socie­ties – is inst­ruc­tive. Its reading of face coverings reveals a mecha­nism of Othe­ring charac­te­ri­zing recent debates on forms of veiling in Islam. As suggested by a look into travel writing on Western Asia and North Africa and portrait photo­graphy from this region, however, this discourse draws on a much longer tradi­tion. Nineteenth-century Western travel­lers like Helmuth von Moltke or Mark Twain compared women in full-body veils to ghosts or dead bodies. Early studio photo­graphs in the context of emer­ging tourism in the region showing fully veiled human figures convey a similar image.

Alge­rien, 19. Jh.; Quelle: sarrazins.fr

As travel­lers and photo­graphers seem to have agreed, veiling dive­sted the indi­vi­dual of the indi­vi­dual, and more than that, of freedom itself – a focus very diffe­rent from that of Lady Mary Wortley Montague, who, travel­ling at the begin­ning of the eigh­te­enth century, had claimed, equally gene­ra­li­zing, that women used the anony­mity bestowed by veiling for expan­ding their sexual agency. Nineteenth-century travel­lers, by contrast, embraced a nega­tive view of the veil – not just because they read into it a lack of life and liberty. According to Meyda Yeğe­noğlu, it irri­tated them for yet other reasons. On the one hand, it seemed to enable the wearer to conceal her true nature. On the other hand, it allowed her to see without being seen, thus inves­ting her with power.

European Masks: Excep­tio­na­lity and Status

To some extent, this disap­proval of forms of face covering is puzzling. Face covering, after all, was not an unfa­mi­liar pheno­menon in European cultural history. During masquerades and carni­vals, it allowed men and women to tempora­rily shed moral cons­traints. In a medical context, it protected its wearer from contrac­ting illnesses, last but not least by means of the fragrant herbs hid in its beak. In a mili­tary context, facial veiling was common at an even earlier stage. A knight’s armour often covered the face in its enti­rety except for a narrow visor. Fencing masks bestowed full-face coverage. In early modern times, the vizard protected the pale comple­xion befit­ting upper-class women: a mask, often made of black fabric, with openings only for the eyes kept in place by a mouth­piece. During the nine­teenth century, women wore a veil, albeit a trans­pa­rent one, on their day of marriage, in church, during burials, and in mour­ning. From the late eigh­te­enth century onwards, masks faci­li­tated swim­ming and diving. A century later, they provided protec­tion from poison gas.

Admit­tedly, these forms of face coverage shared two aspects: they were worn but tempora­rily and/or only by upper-class men and women, thus leaving the majo­rity of society unveiled. Masks, or so Mikhail Bakhtin argues, were asso­ciated with the tran­sitory, with meta­mor­phoses, with the infrin­ge­ment of natural bounda­ries. As long as they remained temporary or a prero­ga­tive of social elites, forms of facial covering, there­fore, were accep­table well into the nine­teenth century and beyond in Europe.

Visi­bi­lity, Indi­vi­dua­lity, and the Modern State

Why was large-scale use of facial covering so suspect to nineteenth-century European obser­vers, then? Visi­bi­lity, or so scho­lars of cultural studies since Foucault have empha­sized, was a core aspect of the modern state. While the idea of the panop­ticon influ­enced the archi­tec­ture of facto­ries, prisons, and other estab­lish­ments mainly in theory, the deve­lop­ment of crimi­no­lo­gical photo­graphy, aided by the inven­tions of Bertillon, and the pass­port, accom­pa­nied by a photo­graph from the 1910s onward, made a decisive contri­bu­tion in this direc­tion. Far more recent are the intro­duc­tion of the prohi­bi­tion of disguise (as laid down, for instance, in German law), and CCTV. Finally, the tech­no­logy of facial reco­gni­tion offers a maximum degree of visi­bi­lity in both physical and virtual space.

At the same time, the idea of the indi­vi­dual turned into the very foun­da­tion of self-declaredly liberal and secular socie­ties. This indi­vi­dual was to act auto­no­mously, only to be restricted in its liberty where this liberty infringed upon that of others. In prac­tice, this indi­vi­dual was male, middle-class, white. Other groups within society saw far more limits imposed upon their agency. The presence of these limits, however, did not taint the idea of indi­vi­dual freedom as the core ideal of modern socie­ties. Apart from the liberty of belief, opinion, and congre­ga­tion, the modern indi­vi­dual, again on the level of law, enjoyed liberty in choice of dress as long as it was not read as a reli­gious signi­fier. Dress codes, at least in terms of sump­tuary laws, were a thing of the past, and law would only return to regu­la­ting apparel under Nazi rule.

Fang Maske, Louvre; Quelle: wikimedia.org

Facial covering, on the other hand, came to be asso­ciated more and more with the cultural Other since the nine­teenth century. In this context, masks from Africa, Asia, and the Pacific became objects of fasci­na­tion. They were inter­preted as symbo­li­zing reli­gious rituals and social orders not based on the idea of the indi­vi­dual but of life courses struc­tured by rites of passage. Masks became coveted objects in European collec­tions. They inspired modern pain­ting, sculp­ture, and photo­graphy. In European and American daily life, however, facial covering became more and more absent. Even head­gear, once a sign of respec­ta­bi­lity, was on the wane. In Western socie­ties, showing one’s face became tanta­mount to commu­ni­ca­ting authen­ti­city and honesty.

The Apotheosis of Western Public Health

At the same time, colo­nia­lism helped spread the idea of Western hygiene as supe­rior. It found expres­sion in urba­ni­za­tion where the moder­ni­za­tion of Paris initiated by Hauss­mann, with its sewers, street lights, visual axes, and boule­vards became a model for cities around the world, inclu­ding non-European ones. It seeped into medi­cine whose Western notions did not comple­tely replace other forms of know­ledge but came to domi­nate academia none­theless. Even in food hygiene and chemi­stry, Western stan­dards took the lead. Domestic science became a central part of the curri­culum among Western educa­tional actors in impe­rial contexts. These and other parties were also dedi­cated to imple­men­ting Western stan­dards with regards to bodily clean­li­ness. In prac­tice, these concepts never fully replaced other notions, not just because colo­nial powers oversaw their imple­men­ta­tion only half-heartedly due to racism, economic reasons, and sheer lack of power. Instead, these cultural encoun­ters gave rise to the emer­gence of hybrid or pidgin know­ledge. From a Western perspec­tive, however, one’s own notions of hygiene appeared supe­rior none­theless.

What’s in a Mask?

Apart from the fact that Western governments hardly took precau­tions for the case of an epidemic, it is these two reasons – the belief in the supe­rio­rity of one’s own notions of public health and the rejec­tion of facial covering -, that obst­ruct the accep­tance of masks in the present situa­tion, although medical experts in Germany and else­where come to stress more and more the advan­tage of masks, and masks even turn into a bone of conten­tion between Western states. The argu­ment against the wearing of masks, or so a glance into nineteenth-century trave­lo­gues suggests, is a deeply orien­ta­list one. While there is little doubt that the spread of the virus could be slowed down if ever­yone wore a mask in public, cultural precon­cep­tions with a long histo­rical tradi­tion impede the imple­men­ta­tion of this prag­matic solu­tion. The fear of losing face is too para­mount. Even campaigns for the use of masks, there­fore, cham­pion indi­vi­dua­lity, in all likeli­hood hardly just because of scar­city, in stres­sing the crea­tive poten­tial of sewing one’s own mask. Oscar Wilde is perfectly right in clai­ming that a mask is more telling than a face.